E-textbooks for students – further musings for the new academic year!

leaves

So autumn is here, along with our new and returning students.  Thousands of students now have their core texts embedded within their virtual learning environment, ready to study from over the course of the semester.  Before the summer (…how long ago that now seems!) we heard the views of two students who took part in our 2015/16 pilot and the finding from colleagues working on the ARFIS project on student reading preferences.  As ‘Welcome Week’ comes to an end and our students gear up for the academic year ahead, it seems a good time to revisit the aims of the Books Right Here Right Now project and how they hope to meet the needs of our students.

Central to the project’s aim of ‘reinventing recommended reading’ has been our e-book pilots – looking at innovative ways of ensuring that our students have access to the key textbooks for their courses.  Much of the discussion around reading preferences, including the opinions of our students, suggests that students enjoy the convenience of having e-books provided but still appreciate the experience of studying from a physical copy, with words like ‘relationship’ and ‘connection’ used to describe that experience.

So why focus on providing e-books?  As we’ll all recognise, many key textbooks are very expensive (in both print and electronic format) as they are a major source of revenue for academic publishers; in times where budgets across the University are under increased scrutiny, providing both print and electronic formats is not viable.  Increased tuition fees have created heightened expectations of the library’s provision, placing further strain on budgets.  Purchasing models has been a regular theme on this blog, showing that we haven’t achieved the perfect solution yet!

But enough of the negatives!  We believe that in providing an electronic copy of those key textbooks to each and every student on a course we offer an equality of access we would be unable to achieve otherwise.  This 1:1 ratio means that students who cannot afford to buy a copy for themselves are not at a disadvantage. Knowing that all students have access to the recommended content allows our academic staff to better plan and deliver their course.

Beyond the immediate benefits of convenient personal access, developments in e-textbook technology and content will hopefully help to foster a new ‘relationship’ and ‘connection’ with the text.  We’ve heard previously about ‘connected content’ and considered some of the possibilities a move from the shackles of physicality might provide.  It will be interesting to monitor whether these benefits will change the perceptions of e-books among students.

Michael Stevenson, University of Manchester

 

E-textbooks for students – musings for the new academic year

welcome

The new academic year is almost upon us and the students are soon to arrive – for those working in academic libraries this is always an exciting time.  Of course during those summer months much of the work undertaken is in preparation for their arrival.

This has certainly been the case at Manchester where we have been working on the third and final year of e-textbook pilots for our students.  As with previous years we have looked to expand both the number of titles and the number of our students who receive their own individual e-textbook.  In addition we have continued to test new acquisition and supply modules looking to extract maximum value for the Library and University, as well as additional functionality for our students and academic colleagues.   A further detailed breakdown will be available on the blog in the near future, but the table below provides a summary of activity to date:

Academic Year No. of titles No. of students
2014/15 21 4,610
2015/16 52 11,049
2016/17 65 (*) 11,863
(*) this figure will rise with new Semester 2 titles in January 2017

Additionally this year we have worked with some new publishers, whilst continuing our dialogue with existing publishers.   Further work is needed on establishing more viable and realistic pricing modules and we continue to enjoy regular discussion with our publishing colleagues around this!  Pricing centred on usage is now standard and we have begun discussions drilling down on this aspect further.  We are analysing the incidences of single usage and what the accompanying price here should be, having had some success with the more progressive publishers.

In the last few months we have also gathered and analysed a wide range of data taken from our own research.  This includes students’ use and perception of the e-textbook pilot itself, as well as their thoughts on their use and perceptions of e-textbooks in general.  In the last year we have also undertaken some research looking to correlate the use of these e-textbooks with student attainment. We will be providing more information on all of this in the future.

What has also become evident, especially over the last year, is the increased level of interest and activity from UK HE libraries.  This has either resulted from requests from senior management in their institutions asking them to look at provision, or from the libraries themselves who seek to enhance teaching and learning in their universities and incorporate this activity alongside more traditional library acquisitions.   This work, together with increased involvement from JISC who have also set up an e-textbook strategy advisory group, bodes well for future development of pricing models and ultimately the overall learning experience of students across the UK.

Dominic Broadhurst, University of Manchester

A pizza for your thoughts…

Before the BRHRN blog takes a well-earned summer vacation we thought we’d leave you with some thoughts and themes from our pizza-powered student focus groups, looking at our semester 1 pilots.

focus group

The focus groups were facilitated by Becky Hartnup and Karen Coles; our partners at VitalSource.  Two sets of students were given questions and prompts on a range of aspects of our eTextbook provision, such as their knowledge of the scheme, how they have found using the eTextbooks provided, and whether they’d like to see the scheme repeated in the future.

One theme that we have seen in recent weeks is the issue of cost.  Our students said:

‘I was happy. I don’t have to pay for it. Don’t have to find it. I won’t use it after this.’

‘Good. I don’t have to buy it.’

‘Your grade does vary a lot if you have the book or you don’t. The cost does put you off (£50) and it can affect your grade.’

‘I don’t have much money to buy textbooks because it is very expensive.’

On the features of the eTextbooks and how the students used them:

‘I quite like to write things down. I wasn’t sure how I was going to learn. I find I prefer it because if I have downtime, on the bus, I can do some revision’

‘If you have them on the phone you go through making notes about relevant topics. Carrying them around is such a pain.’

‘I use out and about – on the bus, waiting for a friend. It’s convenient.’

Positively, the finance students in the group reported that their lecturer had shared notes. Others stated that links to the relevant reading were provided within the VLE.

On problems faced and improvements that can be made to future offerings:

Some of the titles made available in the scheme were PDFs.  These titles were not reflowable, and students stated that they had difficulty viewing tables and diagrams, particularly on smaller screens.  Unfortunately, one student found the difficulties to be a real deterrent:

‘Because I find the ebook really hard to use I try to use it not that often.’

Other issues mentioned were eye strain when reading for long periods and reduced engagement when reading from a screen.  Some students were aware that they could print, but saw this as an expensive option.

Our colleagues at VitalSource took away a number of things which I think are useful to all of us involved in eTextbook provision:

  • Ensure students are briefed on the level of experience they can expect and on customer services routes.
  • There is a lot of information to take in at the beginning of term! Refresher sessions could be provided at the start of each half term.
  • One university has set up a peer to peer support group where enthusiastic student users provide help to their cohort.

Finally, and bittersweet to librarians, a comment on the usefulness of eTextbooks:

‘I don’t have to go to the library.’

(We do more than just books you know!)

Michael Stevenson, University of Manchester

Student preferences: Academic Reading Format International Study

computer book

In our previous two posts, Marwan and Joe provided us with an insight into what students at the University of Manchester think about the BRHRN e-textbook provision.  From simple positives, such as the savings made in not having to purchase course textbooks, to more complex ideas about the relationship between reader and text, the preferences of these two students were mixed.

Juliana Ríos Amaya and Jane Secker at the London School of Economics have recently published their findings on students’ preferences for academic reading.  Their report, ‘Choosing between print and electronic… Or keeping both? Academic Reading Format International Study’ represents the UK findings of an international study into student preferences in this area, ARFIS (on Facebook).

In researching student preferences, the authors surveyed 655 students from a number of UK universities.  Their results were divided into two categories: the first looking at behaviours or preferences which reflect student reading preferences; and the second with a focus on learning engagement.

In the first category, 42% of students strongly agreed and 28% agreed that they preferred their course materials in print format.  Looking at the reasons for this figure may elucidate Joe’s comments about the students’ ‘relationship’ with the text: 52% strongly agreed and 28% agreed that they can focus better on the text when in print; 42% strongly agreed and 29% agreed that they can remember information from their course readings when in print.

When it came to convenience, responses were split.  In response to the statement “It is more convenient to read my assigned readings electronically than to read them in print”, 25% of those surveyed agreed, with 27% in disagreement.  A respondent from LSE, in agreeing with the statement, commented that accessing course resources electronically “…saves carrying around a lot of paper”, echoing sentiments expressed by Marwan.  Other comments centred on the convenience in accessing electronic resources on the one hand, and the ease of using printed materials on the other.  Jane highlighted a comment in her blog post  on the findings, where the academic task being carried out influence the student’s preferences.  This tallies with Joe’s comments and his hunt for specific quotes and references.

The ARFIS UK findings also mirror feedback we have received from the BRHRN 2014/15 pilots.  While our students found it easier to read and take in information printed texts, they also found it much more straightforward to gain access to electronic resources, as well as finding them more convenient.  We will be looking at the feedback we received from our 2014/15 pilots in more detail in the near future.

Michael Stevenson, University of Manchester

photo credit: Frank Farm via flickr (license)

Reading: ‘Ain’t nobody got time for that’

This time out, University of Manchester student Joe Walsh gives us his opinions on e-books.

no time

Ain’t nobody got time for that… The popular phrase that went viral, I feel, is a fitting summary to the way the world works today and that includes education.  This a world in which people get frustrated if Google takes 3 seconds to load; 15 years ago I was quite content to wait a 20 minutes for dial up. This type of attitude can quickly spill into the rest of our lives including the way we learn. The thought of churning through textbooks just to find a few useful references seems like a nightmare and raises the question that surely there is a better way? I have found myself falling into the trap of using a variety of websites, offering links to a whole host of e-books on any subject you can imagine. These sites have proved useful on more than one occasion in finding exactly what I need for an assignment within a matter of minutes. This being said it would be hard to persuade myself to spend all that effort in rummaging through a never ending library, finding several books and then scavenging for that reference several hours later. You could argue that I am over exaggerating; however, if I asked you to find a specific quote in this blog post would you read through all of it or simply press Ctrl+F and then search for the key words?

To see another side to the page (see what I did there?); if one were to do as I asked they would miss that hilarious pun, along with the points I have mentioned throughout. If we do the same when it comes to academic research can we also miss out?  Are e-books a danger to our education system and can you really get the same experience from an e-book as a reliable paper back? There are those who claim that you can’t have the same ‘relationship’ with a text in digital form and there are those who enjoy that freedom to connect with the text to make annotations and to physically hold it. Overall not only do they find it easier to read but enjoy feeling part of the text and consequently get a much ‘richer’ experience. Perhaps that’s what it all comes down to; what experience the reader is looking for. I’m not saying we should read too much into this (stop me I’m on fire) but the truth is why can’t you have both? With software available now on web browsers such as Microsoft Edge you can make annotations on e-books just as easily as with pen and paper. If both were available within the library then students have the choice of either physical or digital. Film production companies realise that people will probably find their own digital copy, so they provide digital copies to go along with the DVD. Can’t publishers do the same with e-books? If both physical copies and digital links could be found in the library then students would have the choice like they always have: do it last minute and rush through or actually study and do the research through whatever medium suits them, their needs, and their preferences.

I’m not saying that this blog post is a page turner or a best seller (I couldn’t resist) but I am going off my own experience and the truth is that both ways are fine. Therefore, in this world of plenty, why are we arguing over which medium is best for our libraries, as I previously mentioned ‘Aint nobody got time for that’.

Joe Walsh, University of Manchester student

photo credit: Paul Downey via flickr (license)

E-textbooks: lightening the load!

You’ve heard (plenty!) about what we think about e-textbooks – but what do our students think?

rsz_carrying_books

The financial burden for course textbooks is a lot; especially for an economics degree.  I found it hard to cope with the financial demand with 12 modules to buy textbooks for, where each textbook would cost around £50. I would then turn to the library for physical copies however the ratio of books per student within the library were very low, for example 4 textbooks for the 300 students on the course. This left me feeling frustrated and wanting an alternative. Fortunately in my second year I had been introduced to the e-book scheme which allowed me to access my course textbooks for free online. Compared to my first year where I was less inclined to buy books due to the financial burden (which affected my degree performance), I felt like this was a great opportunity  provided by the University to save money and perform better within my degree.

I initially had doubts about the practicality of e-books. This was due to the fact I had only used e-books in PDF format. However the bookshelf software is smooth and slick, I am able to access my e-books on numerous devices, including my phone and tablet, which comes in handy if I wanted to access the books on the go. I am able to also highlight important sections in the book and write comments. This was very useful during my exam period as I could go back over quickly what I had noted at the start of the semester. These practical features on bookshelf that were not available on a physical copy had made a huge difference within my learning experience. The cloud of books on my bookshelf provides another layer of practicality as I do not need to carry around heavy 500 page books to and from university anymore!

I hope to see more e-books available for my future courses; it is cheap and effective way of providing all students with access to their course textbooks!

Marwan Mohamed, University of Manchester student

photo credit: Garry Knight via flickr (license)

In conversation

conversationIn April I was asked to appear on an e-textbooks discussion panel at the 2016 Talis Insight Europe 2016.   For those of you with 45 minutes to spare you can watch the full coverage here!

The session comprised of 6 panel members with a Chair to supervise proceedings!  In addition to myself there were colleagues from other institutions heavily involved in this activity; namely the Universities of Plymouth, Middlesex and Liverpool plus two colleagues from the publishing sector; Kogan Page and Pearson

The panel focus centred on institutional models where the library or another group is licensing e-textbooks for direct provision to students.

Rather than squaring us up; universities on the one side, publishers the other; the plan was for a friendly conversation where we explored the two sides of the coin.  Fortunately, that is exactly what we got!  We did not agree on everything but we were very fortunate to hear interesting perspectives and more on the challenges faced by both publishers and libraries on this rapidly evolving activity.  In a nutshell the discussion focused on these issues:

  • what does success look like to your organisation?
  • what are the key elements to making this type of model a success?
  • what are the threats to success?
  • what would you do if you were a publisher/institution to overcome the threats/barriers?
  • what is the common ground – how can we work together to ensure the models support the needs to students and their teachers?

As is evident from the video there was a wide ranging discussion, which also included many insightful comments from the audience.  One debate strand initiated by an audience member was whether these library-led initiatives posed a significant threat to campus bookshops.  My personal view is that many libraries such as ours work on a number of areas with campus bookshops and that this new activity would just work alongside.  A far bigger issue is the ever evolving market for book retailing in general, which poses a number of threats to physical book retail outlets.   A crucial dynamic is that many of the publishers who were traditionally only suppliers to the book shops are now also competitors as they look to sell their books via a range of competing retail and distribution outlets.

There were some major take homes for me.  Firstly it was really good to be on an open forum with colleagues from the publishing sector who were willing to explain their positions and debate the issues in a collegiate and frank manner.   What struck me was that we all need to understand each other’s position and then try and move together to chart a course in this new and often unknown territory.  I remain convinced that much of the future lies with the sector (working with Jisc) to drive a wider sector led agreement that both meets the needs of libraries and customers plus offers large potential volume sales of e-textbooks to publishers.

The four libraries on the panel, while already working together, also agreed to meet up in the summer to further discuss pricing and share best practice.  More details when we have them!

Dominic Broadhurst, University of Manchester

US perceptions of the e-text landscape: part 3

In the final post of her three part series, Aimee delves deeper into the research conducted at the University of Central Florida (UCF) to better understand the digital landscape on campus. Part one looked at the trends contributing to an underwhelming use of eTextbooks in the US higher education system and part two described Aimee’s professional journey with eTextbooks at UCF.

magnifying-glass

To better understand the digital landscape on campus, we distributed surveys to UCF students about eTextbooks in 2012 and 2014, and have just completed one in 2016. While the findings cannot be generalized to US higher education institutions as a whole, they do confirm some trends that have been discovered in other research studies.

eTextbook use

Over the four-year period from 2012 to 2016, eTextbook use at UCF has increased dramatically. In 2012, 42% of participating students indicated they had used an eTextbook at least once in their college studies. In 2014, the percentage increased to 60%; in 2016, up to 73%. In just four years, eTextbook use has grown over 30%. This is remarkable, considering we do not have a specific campus initiative to use eTextbooks.

Regarding devices, the vast majority of students (80%) use the computer most frequently to access their eTextbooks. This number has remained steady over four years, despite increasing tablet ownership. 37% of students owned a tablet in 2012; 57% in 2014; and 59% in 2016. However, only around 12% of students said they used tablets most frequently to access eTextbooks in 2016; the same percentage was found in 2012.

When asked what kind of eTextbook students used, PDFs or ones that offered basic reading features were selected the most. We found a slight increase in eTextbooks with more interactive elements, such as simulations and note sharing. In 2014, 28% of students said they had used at least one eTextbook with interactive elements; in 2016, that had increased to 36%.

Influential factors for adoption

Lower cost remains the top factor in influencing students to select an eTextbook rather than a print textbook. Ability to access eTextbooks anywhere is the second most popular reason. The preference for print is still alive and well. In 2016, students that had never used an eTextbook in their college studies were asked to indicate reasons for this, and 73% said they preferred print. Preferring to sell back books for money at the end of the semester was a distant second.

Preferences for features have also remained quite steady. Reading features (searching for keywords, glossary) and study features (highlighting, annotating) were highly valued, while social features (sharing notes with peers) were less so.

Instructor role

Recognizing how important the instructor is to successful eTextbook integration, we asked students in 2014 about their instructors’ involvement. About 30% of students who had used eTextbooks before said that their instructors gave them instructions on how to access the book and told them who to contact for technical help. Similarly, around 30% also said that the instructor actually modelled how to effectively read and study from an eTextbook.

Recommendations

While eTextbook use is increasingly common, the reasons appear logistical (lower cost and convenience) rather than for pedagogical. The pedagogical side cannot be ignored. Publishers and providers of digital content need to increase the interactivity of the content in order to go beyond simple digital facsimiles of print versions. Additionally, instructors need to select eTextbooks with high quality features, as well as model the use of the eTextbook to show how to read and study effectively from the digital resource. This points to the need for professional development, with campus stakeholders such as librarians and instructional designers playing a defined role. At UCF, we have created a self-paced online course called eTextbook Essentials, which provides UCF instructors with an overview of the landscape, including common barriers to course integration and practical guides to assist with integration.

Aimee deNoyelles, Instructional Designer, University of Central Florida

Questions and (some) answers

question mark

We recently completed a series of meetings with some of the publishers we have been working with on the Books Right Here Now Project (in supplying an individual copy of a textbook to large number of our students)

From our perspective the objectives of these meetings were:

  • to understand the environment publishers are working within
  • to inform future negotiations around e-textbook acquisition and supply
  • to develop a sustainable and mutually beneficial model for future supply

To meet our objectives we asked each of the publishers to answer a number of questions (sample examples provided below) in advance based around the following themes:

Book Production

What elements make up the cost of production in a standard text book and how does a digital book differ?

Unit Pricing

What percentage number of units would you expect to sell to a particular cohort via your retail/distribution channels?

Content

How are authors reacting to changing model of production and in particular impact upon on author royalties?

Delivery

What is your preferred model of delivery for your digital text books e.g. via an intermediary, via your own platforms?

Pricing

What is your optimum pricing model? e.g. flat fee, subscription, usage based etc.?

Future

What are your views on future issues of production and delivery of e-text books?

We were under no illusions that publishers have found some of the questions difficult to answer and indeed a number used the veil of “commercial in confidence” to hide behind on certain questions.   Understandable perhaps, but a little frustrating and only made us think further that their current margins on textbooks are still healthy and even excessive, albeit if under pressure from the increasingly volatile nature of the textbook market.

Nevertheless it was a series of very productive meetings, especially with those publishers that shared the most information!   We will divulge some of the findings in due course (without, of course, giving out any sensitive information!)  For now, here are some of the general themes that emerged:

  • The vice like grip that both print sales and the print pricing model still has on the e-textbook model. Despite falling or plateauing print sales, like a baby with a dummy, this is something many are unwilling or unable to give up…
  • All are aware of seismic changes affecting the market both now and especially in the future, but none are fully sure whether to stick or twist…
  • The belief (or fervent wish perhaps) that their own adaptive learning systems and solutions are the key to their future prosperity! From our perspective and that of our academics and students the jury is most certainly out on this issue…

Interesting times indeed – comments very welcome!

Dominic Broadhurst, University of Manchester Library

photo credit: Karen Eliot via flickr (license)

Bound by the bound book

dusty book

The audience was aghast; “pay more, you say?”  The incredulous response came at a recent(ish) JIBS event, upon the suggestion that there might be some circumstances in which a library would be willing to pay more for e-book content.  Which got me thinking – what would we be (potentially) willing to pay more for?

In a mixed audience made up of librarians and e-resources staff, publishers, academics, and others, one of the main grumblings of discontent was at the frequent linking of the cost of an e-book to the cost of a physical book.  An enlightening talk from Liz Martin at IOP Publishing explained some of the processes and costs unique in producing an electronic version of a title.

But cost isn’t the only area in which the potential of e-books is being linked to that of a physical copy.  Freed from the limitations of paper, the e-book offers the possibility of connected content, of using the best available media to explain ideas, and of giving users more powerful tools than simply digital versions of post-it notes and highlighter pens.  Too often e-books are sold to libraries and other users as flat PDFs of featureless ePUBs.  This doesn’t add the value we would be willing to pay more for.

The most obvious way that this thinking is hampering the potential of the e-book is in creating a usage model which treats an e-book in the same way as one would treat a physical copy.  The limitation of ‘concurrent usage’ is to treat an e-book as though there are individual electronic ‘copies’ owned by the library.  Alternatively, a token system suggests that the e-book has been ‘used up’ after a certain point (perhaps a nod to the worn, torn and tattered pages of some of our older textbooks!)  Either system can create a barrier to usage at the point of need, unnecessarily akin to a physical copy already out on loan.  The removal of such barriers would surely add value.

The inability to move thinking away from the limitations of the physical did for the golden-age for recording artists; authors looking to protect their digital rights and ensure they are remunerated for their hard work and knowledge might consider how adding value can avoid them facing the same fate.  Downloading an illegal PDF might have the same content as an e-textbook not currently available to the user via their library.  An e-textbook with connected content and rich media, available anywhere and at any time adds value beyond what could be easily replicated.

If we can stop thinking of the e-book as a simple online facsimile of a physical copy, we can stop thinking of a product made up of ‘1s’ and ‘0s’ costing as much as one which you can hold in your hand!  We might even be willing to pay more for those ‘1s’ and ‘0s’!

Michael Stevenson, University of Manchester Library